Obesity is a health problem that leads to serious medical complications, the shortening of life expectancy and a higher cost for society.
There is a well established treatment strategy for fighting against obesity according to the characteristics of each case. The first step is the evaluation of the medical background of each patient, the treatments he had, his food habits, his psychological and behavioral profile, personal and family influences. The second step is the finding of a diet together with a set of physical exercises. The diet should last as much as possible, no matter the form of treatment. Usually, fat people find it difficult to accept because they are desperate to find a miraculous treatment. In fact, the long-term treatment is the most efficient way of losing weight.
Ten Piece of Good Advice
1. Diet therapy is the first component of the treatment. Having an individual nutritional program is based on the fact that each person is unique (a unique medical background, a unique life style and a unique genetic baggage) and this is why the diet for a fat person should be personalized so that it may contain healthy, different foods, according to the needs of each person.
2. A balanced diet should follow the rules of a proper nutrition: 12-15 % proteins, 30-35% lipids and 50-55 % carbohydrates, even when it comes to overweight persons. When one looses weight, the number of calories is smaller and the type of foods and the frequency of meals are the main priority for long lasting results.
3. Lipids (fats) are a major source of energy for the human body and a surplus of lipids (over 35 %) is noxious. One may maintain the level of cholesterol in blood in normal boundaries by reducing the amount of fats from his diet. The fats should be those found in chicken or turkey, fish, skim dairies, olive oil, hazelnuts and raw seeds.
4. Proteins should have no more than 15 % from the necessary daily dose of trophins. Fat people should consume vegetable and animal proteins alike. Animal proteins may be found in meat, meat products, fish, eggs, dairies. Dry vegetables, cereals and bread are also rich in proteins.
5. You should consume more complex glucides and reduce the supply of simple glucides as much as possible. Glucides must be at least 50 % of the necessary daily dose of trophins (nutritional substances) because they give you the energy to your daily physical activities and they calm down hunger.
6. Vegetables, fruits and cereals give 30-40 g fibers per day and thus, each meal should contain one fruit and one fresh vegetable. A balanced diet should also contain a lot of liquids, minimum 1, 5 l of water per day (water is the only liquid the human body needs to survive). The other liquids like tea and fruit juices are not counted in those 1, 5 l of drinks per day.
7. Semi-permanent snacks, excessive amounts of lipids and too much food during the meals must be eliminated first from the eating habits of an obese person. The patient should have three meals per day and a snack between them. He will eat in a relaxed atmosphere, without hurry. The nutritionist will explain him the rules of choosing foods and the right quantity. A proper diet for obese persons should be of 1600 calories per day.
8. The most famous anti-obesity diet is the hypocaloric, hyperproteic diet, which maintains the muscular mass while the patient is losing weight and fat tissue. It involves biochemical and psychological mechanisms, but also special nutritional values: decreasing the amount of glucides and lipids and the increase of good proteins. The relative long-term inefficiency is due to the difficulty of maintaining an excess of proteins, and also to the transfer from this diet to a normal one.
9. The hypocaloric diet is recommended only under the strict supervision of the doctor because it contains a lot of proteins and it has some contraindications: for patients that suffer from loss of renal or hepatic functions, for patients who have heart diseases, depressions or mental derangements, for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Before going on this diet, you should have some short checks like an electrocardiogram, complete blood and urine analysis and a thyroid examination. Diuretics and the pills for arterial hypertension are forbidden.
10. Regardless of the number of kilos one must loose, the diet should have a stage of losing weight in order to reach the goal and during this stage the patient should consume proteins; a transitional stage – the reintroduction of normal nutrition and the decrease of protein foods; and the final stage – keeping the weight.